Cosmic rays have been detected coming up from the Antarctic ice. The cosmic ray detection experiment, ANITA, is intended to detect rays coming from space, but has detected high-energy particles coming upwards from the ice. This is bizarre because high-energy particles stand an infinitesimally small chance of penetrating right through the earth without interacting with anything. Furthermore, IceCube, the neutrino detection experiment has now also confirmed detection of upward high-energy particles, and a paper on preprint today calculates that whatever particle is doing this, has much less than a 1-in-3.5 million chance of being part of the Standard Model!
There are murmurs of this being the first evidence of Super symmetry, sterile neutrinos, atypical dark matter, stau sleptons (the super symmetrical version of a tau lepton) – indeed there were theoretical papers written years ago predicting that the stau slepton would be detected in neutrino observatories.
Clearly there will now be considerable effort to attain more detection data.
Some evolutionary mutations to human genes have been cause by the ability of ancient retroviruses to insert themselves (randomly) into our genes. One such retrovirus is HK2 – It’s activity was relatively recent (250,000 years) and it is only present in 5 – 10% of humans, inserted into the RASGRF2 gene, which is part of the Dopamine release pathway – the reward feedback circuit.
Two studies communicated today, show that
(a) those who contracted HIV through IV drug use are 2.5 times more likely to have the HK2 mutation than those who contracted HIV through sex.
(b) those who contracted Hepatitis C through IV drug use were 3.6 times more likely to have the HK2 mutation to RASGRF2 than those who contracted Hep C in other ways.
Then, to establish whether the clear implication that addictive behaviour is associated with this HK2 on RASGRF2 mutation, researchers then took normal human brain cells in vitro, and precisely duplicated the mutation. Sure enough the effect was to increase Dopamine expression in the cells, confirming that the reward pathway would be affected by that mutation.
Fast Radio Bursts are one of my favourite astronomical phenomena, because their cause or origin is still completely unknown. They are very short bursts of radio-frequency radiation, lasting just a few milliseconds, but of colossal intensity. There have been only about 37 catalogued to date, all one-offs except FRB 121102.
FRB121102 is a “repeater” – a series of bursts were observed coming from the same source in 2012, then again on several days in 2015, and 15 more bursts during 30 minutes in 2017. The origin appears to be a galaxy about 2 billion light years away.
Although spinning black holes and neutron stars are possible candidate for generating the FRBs, there is no regularity of pulse in the transmissions as there is with spinning pulsars. One outside, but not discounted, possibility is that the source of the FRBs is some sort of extraterrestrial intelligent action – an attempt at communication or the utilisation of power for some purpose.
The new news is that researchers have re-analysed the data from August 26, 2017, when 21 bursts were detected, and they have found another 72 pulses by using AI – a convolutional neural network.
A lone planet-size object (called SIMP J01365663+0933473) has been observed about 20 light years away. It is thought to be a “brown dwarf” – that is an object which is not quite large enough to attain the density needed to start hydrogen fusion and become a star. Scientists estimate the critical size between failed-star and ordinary star at about 13 times the mass of Jupiter. And the mass of this object is – yes – 12.7 times the mass of Jupiter – so it only just failed! It is said to be relatively young – about 200 million years old, and on its own – not orbiting a star.
But the most interesting property of the object is that it has an extremely strong magnetic field – more than 200 times as strong as Jupiter’s, which causes it to have strong auroras. The mechanism generating its magnetic field is unknown. Earth has auroras due to the interaction between the solar wind and Earth’s magnetic field. This object has no solar wind to interact with, so the mechanism may depend on an orbiting object. (Jupiter and its moon Io have a similar interaction.)
There are two basic approaches to measuring the rate of expansion of the universe:
a) using Cepheid variable stars – their brightness tells us how far away they are, and their redshift facilitates calculating the expansion rate
b) deductions from ripples in the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) – originating from the big-bang
These two methods have become more refined over time, but their measured values are some way apart – “about four times the size of their combined uncertainty.” This is according to research published in the Astrophysics Journal, July 12th.
The simplest explanation would be that the expansion rate is greater in the nearby universe than the more distant universe – but such a conclusion is incompatible with the current model, and would require new physics. Research is ongoing.